Top News Headlines - Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Warrington, PA, June 17, 2014 — Discovery Laboratories, Inc. (NASDAQ: DSCO) today announced that it has been awarded the final $1.9 million of a $2.4 million Fast Track Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This award will provide support for the ongoing phase 2a clinical trial for AEROSURF®, Discovery Labs’ investigational combination drug/device product. AEROSURF is in development to provide KL4 surfactant therapy through nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. Discovery Labs was notified in 2010 that it was eligible for consideration under this grant program, and previously received $580,000 to support development activities related to its capillary aerosol generator technology. The company expects to utilize the $1.9 million during 2014.

Repurposed drugs may offer first potential therapy

A review of past studies has found that inhaled corticosteroids used to treat asthma could result in restricting the growth of children who have the condition.

A study published by a research team from Norway has found that babies born into families in which someone has cerebral palsy are more likely to develop the condition themselves.

Outcomes are similar regardless of initial treatment with atropine or patching

Inhaled nitric oxide is widely used in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), but there's no evidence that it significantly improves outcomes, according to a database study.

When an 11-year-old boy in San Diego developed a nasty skin allergy, doctors traced it to the nickel in his family's iPad.

Ultrasonography diagnoses hand bony fractures in pediatric patients with greater than 90% accuracy, researchers from Italy report.

The song says a spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down, but a study says that kind of imprecise measurement can lead to potentially dangerous dosing mistakes.

Parents should think twice before sharing their bed with an infant; a new study suggests bed-sharing is the leading cause of sleep-related deaths in younger infants.

Iowa study found three-quarters of kids drove the off-road vehicles, more than half were in accidents

Secondary injuries more common among children who postpone ligament repair, research shows

Possible explanations include fewer hospital staffers, slower response times, researchers say

More than 10% of children undergoing tympanostomy had postoperative tube obstruction, with serous fluid and increased time to follow-up visit predicting tube occlusion.

Those with light or noise sensitivities post-injury seem to be more affected, study found

The primary focus of this review is on evaluating the effectiveness of family support programs as treatments or prevention efforts delivered by clinicians or peers.

The benefits of hypothermia treatment for newborns deprived of oxygen at birth persist at age six and seven, according to an updated evaluation of the TOBY trial published in the July 10 New England Journal of Medicine.

A simple algorithm including components such as physical exam and ultrasound can help diagnose appendicitis in children and reduce the need for computed tomography (CT), researchers say.

Postnatal weight at diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can help determine when treatment may be warranted, according to Swedish and US researchers.

In 22 high-burden countries, incidence is higher than the number of infections

Gene mutation appears linked to subtype of disorder

Young infants had a stronger immune response to oral and parenteral vaccines when their intestinal microflora were dominated by a single bacteria genus, especially Bifidobacteria, rather than by diverse flora.

Subcutaneous treprostinil appears to be a good option for treating severe pulmonary arterial hypertension in former premature infants.

Researchers surveyed nearly 4,100 teens, aged 14 to 20, who came to a suburban ER and found that one in five girls and one in eight boys reported dating violence in the past year.

Psychomotor impairment at diagnosis associated with glycemic control at one year postdiagnosis

In the UK, high-volume neonatal centers were found to increase the chances of survival for babies born prematurely by 30%, and by 50% for very premature births.

Direct admission of children with pneumonia could result in lower hospital costs than admission through the emergency department (ED).

In the UK, specialist neonatal units that treat a large volume of infants were found to have much greater survival rates than less busy units, a new study published in BMJ Open reports. Specifically, the research found that the chances of survival were 30% higher for babies born prematurely after 27-32 weeks of pregnancy, and 50% higher for babies born after less than 27 weeks of pregnancy.

For kids who need colonoscopy, bowel prep might best be done with a low-volume solution of sodium picosulfate plus magnesium oxide and citric acid, according to Italian researchers.

Deaths were far more common when poor women did not receive follow-up care, study finds

Among children vaccinated with PCV13, invasive pneumococcal disease is more common in those with comorbidities, suggesting routine vaccination may not be enough to reduce this risk.

Screening young athletes for cardiac disease with electrocardiography yields a low false-positive rate, according to new findings.

The marked recent increase in Crohn's disease, especially in children, has prompted a large research effort which to date has led to a better knowledge of the biology of the disease and more effective treatments.

A considerable proportion of neonates with critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) are not referred to a cardiac center by age 4 days, according to a study published online June 30 in Pediatrics. David E. Fixler, M.D., from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, and colleagues describe the correlation between timing of referral to a cardiac center and mortality in 2,360 neonates with CCHD, born before pulse oximetry screening (1996 to 2007).

A new study from Karolinska Institute indicates that the mode of delivery could make an imprint in the stem cells of the newborn infant. The finding may be of interest for understanding why individuals born by cesarean section statistically have an increased risk of immunological diseases. However, it is still unclear if this so-called epigenetic mechanism is temporary or remains over time.

The deaths of four premature babies and serious burns in dozens more have been linked to an antiseptic solution, the medicines regulator has warned, urging doctors to use it sparingly. Doctors use chlorhexidine solution to clean the skin of premature babies before tubes are inserted for feeding and medicines but it has been found to cause serious chemical burns when used carelessly.

Movement impairments can be among the most disabling of all problems that affect people born prematurely. Up to one third of all children born very preterm have noticeable movement problems. These problems range from simple clumsiness to more disabling conditions such as cerebral palsy. It has recently been suggested that movement problems may cause preemies to do worse on academic and cognitive tests.

A new study has determined that telemedicine can be used successfully to identify newborn infants who need specialized medical treatment for retinopathy or prematurity (ROP), a leading cause of treatable blindness. The study, conducted at 13 neonatal intensive care units in the United States and Canada and recently published in JAMA Ophthalmology, found that trained non-physician evaluators at a remote reading center could identify newborns at risk of acquiring ROP by studying retinal images transmitted to their computer screens.

Obese women who become pregnant are more likely to deliver before 28 weeks of pregnancy?, but the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and risk for preterm birth is complex and affected by race/ethnicity, gestational age, and parity, according to findings of a population-based cohort study published in the July issue of Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology.

Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) babies who undergo major surgery appear to have an increased risk of death or subsequent neurodevelopmental impairment, according to a new study published June 16 in the journal JAMA Pediatrics. Major surgeries are procedures that require general anesthesia, and some animal studies have suggested that general anesthesia can increase the risk for neurocognitive or behavioral deficits.

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Measuring variability of heart rate may identify premature infants at risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis, a serious inflammatory condition that can lead to death, according to Penn State College of Medicine researchers. Necrotizing enterocolitis, or NEC, may lead to destruction of the intestinal wall and vital organ failure. It affects 6 to 10 percent of premature infants within the first two weeks of life.

Preterm infants who did not receive respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis were three times more likely to be hospitalized for RSV than infants of the general population. Additional risk factors for RSV infection included daycare attendance or having siblings who attended daycare, according to study findings in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.

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