Top News Headlines - Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Kids in New York City public schools drank water nearly three times more often after dispensers of cool, fresh tap water were conveniently placed near their lunch lines, researchers found.

Dietary management of children allergic to peanuts and/or tree nuts must be individualized to accommodate the nutritional needs of childhood and still keep children safe from allergic food reactions.

Around 1 in 4 cases of salmonella infection in pre-school children is associated with having a pet snake or other reptile, reveals a new study.

The quality of CPR in children can be improved with a device about the size of a credit card that's placed on the chest and provides real-time feedback on chest compression quality, a new study hints.

NIH network findings do not support changing current treatment

Children randomized to comprehensive care have reductions in serious illnesses and costs

More than half of states require or recommend use of outdated or unidentifiable forms

Having parents or guardians involved in their children's care during hospital stays can improve safety, particularly when it comes to medication errors, according to a recent study in the journal Pediatrics.

A report from the Trust for America's Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation showed 15 states have not yet attained their goal of providing at least 90% of children with at least three doses of hepatitis B vaccine

Testing recommended annually from age 3 to 6

Presepsin (P-SEP) appears to be an accurate biomarker of late-onset sepsis in premature infants and might help in monitoring response to treatment, report clinicians from Italy.

Metformin linked to reduced food intake, decreased hunger rating, increased fullness rating

An intervention focused on the dangers of pediatric abusive head trauma was well received and effective among new mothers in a community setting.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Xtoro (finafloxacin otic suspension), a new drug used to treat acute otitis externa, commonly known as swimmer's ear.

NIH study shows young children with type 1 diabetes have significant difference in brain development

Anaerobic antimicrobial therapy is associated with improved survival in some infants with very low birth weight (VLBW) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but at the expense of a higher risk of intestinal strictures.

Otherwise healthy children with acute osteomyelitis can transition immediately to oral antibiotic therapy when they leave the hospital, a new study suggests.

Blood test can help identify severe combined immunodeficiency

When children land in the hospital, they are often given multiple drugs that could interact with each other in potentially harmful ways, a study of U.S. hospitals finds.

Researchers say teens believe e-cigarettes are less harmful

Regulation does not stop the practice, a study has found.

Older teens experience the greatest drop in injury risk while taking the medication

Giving flu shots to schoolchildren also protects others, a new study finds.

For treatment of juvenile recurrent parotitis, ductal corticosteroid infusion appears to work equally as well as sialendoscopy with DCI, according to a new retrospective study.

Case study describes case of neurologic regression in otherwise healthy 8-year-old

The daily application of a moisturizer to the skin of babies at high risk for atopic dermatitis leads to fewer skin problems, new research has shown.

In nearly a third of the deaths at neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in the U.S., potentially modifiable factors are present that could reduce the risk of mortality, according to data from 46 different NICUs.

Fetal exposure to preeclampsia, and in particular, severe disease, may raise the risk for autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay.

Families should be educated about possible health issues and counseled about reproductive choices

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Compared with early enteral feeds, the delayed introduction and slow advancement of enteral feedings to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are not well studied in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. The objective of this study is to study the effects of a standardized slow enteral feeding (SSEF) protocol in ELBW infants.

It’s well known that a baby with a low birth weight — below 5.5 pounds — may have health problems. Many of these children are born prematurely, while others have a low weight because of health or substance problems stemming from their mothers. Birth under any of these circumstances can impede a child’s development in the womb, causing respiratory and heart problems, among others. Though its effects on cognitive development are debated, there’s a general consensus that these babies grow up to have difficulty in school.

In a ground-breaking research project at the University of Gothenburg, seven Swedish women have had embryos reintroduced after receiving wombs from living donors. Now the first transplanted woman has delivered a baby -- a healthy and normally developed boy.

A common drinking water contaminant increases the risk of some types of pregnancy complications, a new study suggests. "Our results suggest that prenatal PCE exposure is not associated with all obstetric complications, but may increase the risk of certain ones, including stillbirth and placental abruption [when the placenta separates from the wall of the uterus]," the Boston University Medical Center researchers said in a university news release. The team looked at the effects of the chemical tetrachloroethylene (PCE) among pregnant women in Cape Cod, Mass., where water was contaminated with PCE in the late 1960s to early 1980s due to vinyl-lined asbestos cement pipes.

Previous studies have demonstrated that the application of moderate hypothermia (ranging from 33ºC down to 30.4ºC) for 72 hours, if initiated within the first 6 hours of life in asphyxiated infants, can reduce death or disability up to age 2 years. This study seeks to provide longer-term outcomes on a group of infants who were enrolled from 2002 until 2006 in the Total Body Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy trial (TOBY).[1]

Although anti–tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibodies are associated with a clear risk of agranulocytosis in adults and are known to cross the placenta, monitoring of the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in neonates born to mothers receiving these biological agents is not currently recommended. Here, we report on the first case series of 4 newborn patients with severe neutropenia born to mothers treated for ulcerative colitis with infliximab during pregnancy (including the third trimester).

The effect of a cesarean in different stages of labor on spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) in a subsequent pregnancy has not been extensively studied. The objective of the study was to evaluate the risk of subsequent sPTB after a first stage cesarean or second stage cesarean compared to a vaginal delivery.

Postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause serious morbidity and mortality in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. The primary sources of postnatal CMV infection in this population are breast milk and blood transfusion. The current risks attributable to these vectors, as well as the efficacy of approaches to prevent CMV transmission, are poorly characterized. The objective of this study is to estimate the risk of postnatal CMV transmission for 2 sources: (1) transfusion of CMV-seronegative and leukoreduced blood and (2) maternal breast milk.

Preemies are already at a higher risk for infection, like most babies. Treating them quickly is the best way to prevent its spread to the bloodstream where it can cause sepsis, a life-threatening complication. The study, from researchers at King’s College London, found that a preemie’s immune system is stronger than once thought, and that it may just work differently than it would in an adult. If the researchers can find a way to tap into this newly found immune process, they may be able to help preemies fight infections better.

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